Tonify kidneys, strengthen yang - impotence, male or female infertility, premature ejaculation, frequent urination, urinary incontinence, irregular menses, low back pain and weakness, cold and painful abdomen.
Strengthen sinews and bones - back pain, muscular atrophy.
Expel wind/damp cold - back and leg qi pain, bi syndromes.
Nourish and tonify liver and kidney - yin and/or blood deficiency w/sore back and legs, low grade abdominal pain, impotence, nocturnal emission, xiao ke; neutral nature - commonly used for liver and kidney deficiency.
Benefits the essence and brightens the eyes - essence and blood are unable to nourish eyes, dizziness, blurred vision, diminished acuity.
Enrich yin and moisten the lungs - consumptive cough.
Calms the spirit - palpitations, anxiety, restlessness, insomnia.
Benefits the yin, anchors floating yang - irritable, insomnia, dizziness, headache, tinnitus, blurred vision, bad temper, red flushed face due to yin deficiency with ascending yang.
Prevents leakage of fluids - continuous sweating in steaming bone disorder, aftermath of warm-febrile disease, spontaneous sweating, night sweats, nocturnal emission, spermatorrhea, leukorrhea, uterine bleeding.
Warms the kidneys and fortifies yang - aversion to cold, cold limbs, weak back, impotence, frequent urination; also for waning of spleen and kidney yang with abdominal pain and cold, reduced appetite, diarrhea; wheezing due to failure of the kidneys to grasp the Qi.
Leads floating yang back to its source - upward floating of deficient yang; flushed face, wheezing, severe sweating (like oil), weak and cold lower extremities, deficient and rootless pulse (false heat-true cold, or heat above-cold below).
Disperses deep cold, warms the channels, alleviates pain due to cold causing qi or blood stasis; amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea.
Stabilize the kidneys, retain the essence - leaking of fluids due to weak essence, excessive urination, incontinence, spermatorrhea, excessive sweating, for devastated yang and collapsed qi, as in shock.
Tonify the liver and kidney - lightheadedness, dizziness, impotence, sore back and knees, tonifies the jing and assists the yang.
Stabilize menses - excessive uterine bleeding, prolonged menses, weak effect.
Clears heat, drains fire - high fever, irritability, thirst, and a rapid flooding pulse in patterns of excessive heat in the lungs and/or stomach; cough due to lung heat with thick yellow sputum.
Nourishes yin, moistens dryness - deficiency of lung and kidney yin, night sweats, steaming bone disorder, irritability, afternoon or low-grade fevers, bleeding gums, five-center heat; also for kidney heat signs - spermatorrhea, nocturnal emission, high sexual desire.
Generates fluids and clears heat - oral ulcers and inflammation due to yin deficiency, wasting and thirsting disorder.